TYPICAL USAGE: Malaria, extra intestinal amoebiasis, giardiasis, rheumatoid arthritis, discold lupus erythematosus, lepra reactions, photogenic reactions. Infectious mononucleosis.Mechanism Of Action: Chloroquine is used for malarial prophylaxis (as a suppressive) and in managing acute attacks of malaria. It is highly active against erythrocytic forms of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. It influences Hb digestion by increasing intravesicular pH in malaria parasite cells and interferes with the nucleoprotein synthesis of the patient. It is also effective in extra intestinal amoebiasis. In RA chloroquine and more effectively hydroxychloroquine have a disease-modifying effect.
TYPICAL USAGE: Used for the treatment of malaria.MECHANISM OF ACTION: Amodiaquine inhibit heme polymerase activity. This results in accumulation of free heme, which is toxic to the parasites. The drug binds the free heme preventing the parasite from converting it to a form less toxic. This drug-heme complex is toxic and disrupts membrane function.
TYPICAL USAGE: Malaria: a) Uncomplicated resistant faciparum malaria. b) Complicated and severe malaria including cerebral malaria. Nocturnal muscle cramps. Varicose.MECHANISM OF ACTION: The theorized mechanism of action for quinine and related anti-malarial drugs is that these drugs are toxic to the malaria parasite. Specifically, the drugs interfere with the parasite's ability to break down and digest hemoglobin. Consequently, the parasite starves and/or builds up toxic levels of partially degraded hemoglobin in itself.
TYPICAL USAGE: Adjunctive therapy without valproate, malaria caused by plasmodium falciparum, malaria caused by plasmodium vivax, malaria prophylaxis.
MECHANISM OF ACTION: Mefloquine has been found to produce swelling of the plasmodium falciparum food vacuoles. It may act by forming toxic complexes with free heme that damage membranes and interact with other plasmodial components.
TYPICAL USAGE:Severe malaria including cerebral malaria and as a second line treatment in chloroquine resistant falciparum malaria.
MECHANISM OF ACTION:Artesunate is a potent and rapidly-acting blood schizontocide derived from the leaves of the chinese herb, Armesia annua.The exact mode of action is not clear but clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of artesunate in P. vivax and falciparum malaria.